Review of project management. With acknowledgments to Eric Verzuh, Author, The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Toronto.

The matrix below is being revised by web site author Fred Pentney and is an adaptation of various project management principles at an introductory level. Click on links to get to the topic. Note four stages/phases of project cycle. I have created separate dedicated pages to topics that have a lot of similar material. E.G. WBS/Schedules-this link is active.

Feb. 2, 2004 - update. The boxes BELOW THAT COLOURED ORANGE ARE going to be in the Mid Term test questions. We cover the Definition and Planning stages in the Mid Term, however the four color coded guides below are not orange.

March 29, 2004. Update. Yellow boxes will be in the Final Exam
Some links not connected-scroll

Definition Stage

Napkin -1st ideas. 




Preliminary high level plan. Estimatehigh level tasks Project goals Find Stakeholders & Sponsors Charter S.O.W
as per next list. All still at the high level-big picture
Org. chart.
Communication matrix 


Executive overview.
Proposal These two items are not necessarily in this order in the process. Can occur before project starts or at end of planning. E.g. You might write a proposal to get a project.



Risk management W.B.S. Work Breakdown Structure Task lists  Work packages  Estimates Schedules. C.P.M./Pert Gantt chart Resources forecasts and leveling Budget Cash flow schedule


Open task reports Change log Critical ratios

Close out Review project Review Report History file Client satisfaction  Summary report  Network

Successful projects criteria:
How to measure success. 
  • On time
  • On budget
  • Right Quality
  • Satisfied team
  • Satisfied management
  • Satisfied Customer

Know this

Return to top of page.

How to achieve success: 
1. Have support of upper management.
2. Get agreement on goals with management, team and customers.
3. Plan showing path and responsibilities.
4.  Communication, constant and effective. 
5.  Control the scope.

Know this

Go to P.M.I. web site. PMBOK is the Project management body  (book) of knowledge. It is updated regularly.

Think in terms of projects. We all get involved in many activities. A lot of these can be more fun if some of the principles and methods in this course are used.

Where would you go to get more information on project management?


Know this

Know the P.M. Industry 
  • History of project management
  • Benefits of P.M. 
  • Trends in P.M.
  • Careers in P.M. 
  • Characteristics of Project Manager

  • Pyramids
    Brooklyn Bridge
    Manhattan Project Polaris Project  
    Know trends,
    benefits and some history and P.M. characteristic

Definition phase: Hi level planning
Initial phase/ hi level planning:
1. Tasks
2. Responsibilities
3. Budget
4. Schedule
5. Resources forecast

These are at the big picture level. May go through two more levels of breakdown in the planning phase.

Start by asking the 6 questions.

Use link for an example.

Know these questions!

What, why, when, who,when and where?

Know this

Benefits and advantages of planning .

1. Use plan to evaluate success
2. Baseline for actual vs. planned
3. Gives a path (map)to follow
4. Controls Scope creep.

Know this.

Microsoft Project software helps in planning and control. It provides the following plus much more.

1. Calendar
2. Task lists
3 . WBS 
4. Schedules
5. Gantt charts 
6. Custom reports 
7. Resources tracking
8. Milestones 
Go to web site for tour.

Know this.

Key document to START the project: 
1. Charter
2. Statement of work
3. Communication matrix
4. Responsibility matrix
5. Risk management 
4. items incl. in Charter !!!!!!Announcement of what  you are going to do (broad picture)
Major stake holders names. 
Formal recognition of authority.
Signed for commitment. 
Could you write a charter??? Be ready. Return to top of page.
Definition phase: Statement of Work
  Statement of work: includes the rules

Key elements of project:
1. Why?
Scope statement : 
3. What we will and wont do. 
4. Deliverables 
5. Cost and schedule

6. Objectives.
7. More stake holders
8. Chain of command on Organization chart

Know this

1. S.O.W. Why are we doing this project? Week 2 handout.

Need, opportunity, necessity. 

Profit/non profit? Prestige, politics (Sacred Cows) , Market share, Operating necessity? 

Other decision making includes profit, non profit, weighted decision making - buying the car and the mid term test item.

Know this

2. S.O.W. Scope statement 
Relationship with other projects. 

How big/small, how long. cost? 

Activities outside your Scope. Make sure that 
assumptions, expectations and exceptions are clarified.

3. What will or WILL NOT be delivered. 

Important to clarify client's expectations. Reveal your understanding of what the project is.

Need Stakeholder meetings with:

PM., Sponsor, Customers, Functional Management and Team Members.

Definition phase:
4. S.O.W. Deliverables 
These are developed from our goals. 
Will include intermediate and final deliverables. 
Intermediate. What has to be completed during the project to allow completion. What is the customer expecting? What does it look like; how does it perform?
5. S.O.W. Cost and schedule.

Use various estimating techniques. Ballpark, Rough order of magnitude, phasing.

Refine theses(more detail as project develops).


6. S.O.W.  - Objectives 

The S. M. A.R.T. formula can be used for Goals, Objectives or  Deliverables 
S. Specific
M.  Measurable 
A. Achievable
R. Realistic. 
T. Timel

Know this

7. S.O.W. Some additional stake holders

Contractors, Sub contractors, 
new teams and members, Consultants.
Make sure they are added onto the Communication Matrix as they come on board, and which key documents they work with. 

8. S.O.W. Organizational chart: Who has the power, authority? Is this a matrix or functional organization, or project driven?

Definition phase: Communication
Responsibility Matrix

1. Who does what?
2. Include activities  (Work packages)
3. Legend=symbols 
4. Level of authority

  • Know this

Communication Matrix

  1. Stake holders
  2. Info needed.
  3. Frequency
  4. Medium used i.e. . how to deliver the info?
  5. Response required - yes or no and how soon
  6. Contact info.

How to complete this document will be in second half of semester-Final exam.


Communication: Why?Effective 2 way is:
To the Right people
With Right information
At the Right time 
Ask for and give timely feedback Case: Our class Group Project highlighted the need to set up good communications and maintain them. Most common complaint-"I didn't know how to get hold of my group members!"


Kick off meeting:to get off to a good start with a good spirit!
Who would you invite?*Include contractors.
What would you arrange to have happen during the meeting. Introduce key people formally.*Project Mgr. introduces stakeholders. Purpose of project.
Introduce to each other
as per their related work. Freebies given out. Hats, Tshirts, mugs. 
Celebration to start off.
Definition phase:

Communication methods:

1. Regular meetings 
2. One on one meetings 
3. Status meeting s
4. Reports
6. Visibility rooms
7. Web site 

8. Mail: internal, Post Office and couriers.

Electronic communication next column
Electronic communication:
  1. Phone
  2. Text messaging
  3. Video conferencing
  4. Teleconferencing
  5. Email
  6. Always on Email - Blackberry or wireless P.D.A.'s (Personal Digital Assistants)
  7. Fax
  8. Have you tried using Email for brainstorming. Just keep adding to the list and forward it?

Rules for meetings:

  1. Preparing: is meeting necessary, purpose, and who should attend?
  2. Ask for Agenda items
  3. Set and distribute agenda with time, location etc.
  4. Ensure facilities are adequate and prepared
  5. Get the keys for the room

During meeting:

1.Keep to agenda: review purpose and agenda
2. Start/finish on time 
3. Take/distribute minutes
4. Stay on topic 
5. Encourage people to contribute 
6. Create follow up task list.
7. Summarize
8. Evaluate: checklist or verbal

Constant and ongoing communication essential. This includes from the Project Manager to all team members and stakeholders. Everyone doesn't need to know everything. P.M. makes sure the right people are getting the information. 

Planning phase: Risk management
Risk management 

1. Written strategy.
What can go wrong? 
Each department contributes. What will it do to minimize risks? Know this

2. How probable and how serious?

a) What is the likelihood (probability %) of the risk occurring?

b) Weight the risks in terms of impact-seriousness. Focus resources where needed

3. Our strategy to minimize the risks? 
Accept risks
Manage the risks
Mitigate-damage control

Know this

4. How to monitor the risk areas
(which tools or reports to use?)

Working example from your project!.l

Know this


Start with S.O.W. and use one of two methods.Turn list into a WBS. Purpose to find relationships between tasks, so we know the skills and other resources needs and there is no unnecessary duplication

Start with Project Top level

and decompose to level that the task is understood by the person assigned to the task. They may be asked to help estimate cost. Add up all the task costs for the project and you have an Estimate.

WBS examples. Assign Work packages to Responsibility Matrix.

The work packages are entered onto the Network diagram for scheduling.

Work packages and Summary Tasks go onto the GANTT chart and copies are given to Team Members so they can see their work in relation to other members.

Estimate and assign Resources.

If you change the S.O.W you have to change the WBS.

If you you change the WBS you may have to change Estimates, Responsibility Matrix, Schedule - these are all interrelated. Know this.

Planning phase: Scheduling methods.
1. Network diagram. 

2. P.E.R.T. 
Name the acronym =  

  • Performance 
  • Evaluation 
  • Review
  • Technique

Used to calculate time. 

Know this

P.E.R.T. formula!!!!!!Used to calculate most probable time for task  etc. O. 

P. Pessimistic 
M. Most probable
R. Realistic 

R= O+P+ 4xM
Divided by 6 

Could use as a weighted method for an estimate!!! Know this

Network diagrams & schedule acronyms, predecessors.

Must have a start/finish 
Shows activities.
Used to set times and 
order of completion and
relationships. Also to calculate
slack or float. (flexible start and finish)  ES, EF, LS, LF
Slack, Float
Forward pass , Backward pass.

Gantt charts. !!!!!most common format for scheduling .

List all key items found - Task list
Time required  -Time allocation
Dates - Symbols  - Mile stones-3 uses.
Return to top of page.

Know this


Planning phase: Estimating

28. Estimating: level of accuracy
1. Ball park: or  best guess. Based on your experience. Increase your guess by up to 100%
2. Order of magnitude: (comparison with previous projects or known quantities). Add a cushion of up to 50%
3. Detailed: known bottom up. Done by the experts on the job.

Know this

Estimating: timing & techniques . Phased estimates estimates a portion of the project life cycle
2. Apportioning - top down method

3.  Para metric 


30. Estimating: top down

Do total estimate then: 
Apportion and assign 
to a phase 
Advantages of top down:
Quicker decisions. Approved by mgt. 

Might not be enough $. Doesn't consider detail.


31. Estimating:  Iteration. Iteration is the process of examining, critiquing, approving or rejecting once then doing it again or a # of times. 
E.g. mgt. rejects 1st estimate send it back. Team modifies and sends
it back to mgt. etc.
Can be applied to Risk Mgt. and estimating. Return to top of page

Know this

Planning phase: Estimating
31. Estimating bottom up

Know this
Work packages from
W.B.S. - good detail. Know the job well 
Very accurate 
Can be padded inflated
Overestimated can lose 
contract or not pursue it.

33. Parametric estimates
Good for low level estimate(this doesn't mean unimportant)

Based on historical data or known 
Variables. P. 165 
Measurable and quantifiable e.g. 
# of guests for dinner
X cost per plate.

Know this

33. a) Estimating: accuracy.
Why we would take on project even at a $ loss?  For prestige. For experience.
Entry into an industry.
To secure future contracts. Why inaccurate estimating, e.g. de liberate overestimating & under estimating can backfire.
Might not get the contract.
Lose creditability.
34. Bench marking
Set the standard of quality.
What were some of the 
quality benchmarks for your groups project?

Q. What is bench marking
Give example. E.g. 
Wine minimum $20
a bottle at the wedding Return to top of page.

Know this

Execution phase: Budgets and resources 
What are you going to Monitor and Control throughout the project?

See your handouts week 11, 12, 13. 


Earned value: Budget & schedule Estimated vs. actual.
Projected end results. Uses two factors
Cost vs. budget
Completion time vs. 
Factor in variance to 
project final costs 
See E.V. terms for example


E.V. acronyms 
CV cost variance $ and %
SV Schedule variance 

BCWP=budgeted cost 
of work performed 
ACWP=Actual cost 
of work performed 

Assign and level Resources: p 141 & 148. 
Too many resources allocated for one day or in one place which could be better utilized. Or, too much happening on one day. Might be people, money, resources, equipment or  time.
You want to keep on time, on budget, with quality. This is one way you can do it.

Return to top of page.

Know this

Execution phase: Conflict resolution 
Project management is change management.
Change management: See the terms below. Know the process, know the documents to use. 

Change causes insecurity and shifts people from their comfort zones. Be prepared to handle conflict if you create changes.

Know this

Conflict resolution: Key steps. Important. One method to resolve conflict is to negotiate. 

See your class handout for the complete list of the following negotiation techniques. 

Next some key samples:

Know this

Negotiation process:
1.Don't  judge other person - find out the issues. Ask questions! 
2. Frame the issue 
3. Find common interest
4. Agree on legitimate  points.
7.  Define resources
11. Deal with dirty tricks-how?
12. Propose possible solution
13. Set criteria

Know this

What to say when they won't negotiate:

Let me see if I understand you. 
Have you got facts?
We should get some facts.
Let's ask an expert.
Lets be fair about this.
Let me get back to you.
Let's agree to disagree.

Return to top of page.

Know this

Execution phase: Monitoring and control 
Getting feedback:

The is a continuous process of collecting data from all sources. What would you do to monitor? Make sure you know all the stake holders and how they can affect progress. Let them know what is expected in terms of reporting and timing of reports.

To monitor, get:

1. Status reports
2. Open task reports
3. Issues logs
4. review Gantt charts
5. Change Order requests
6. use Critical Ratio (progress vs schedule),
7. use Earned value calculations (cost and schedule).


Controlling: Giving feedback
Letting the right people know. Act on the data or feedback received. Give feedback to the right people.  Bring all items back to plan, on budget, on time with right quality. What would you do to control?
1. Use all the reports as appropriate. 2. communicate.


Changes: make sure the right documents are completed to reflect the changes.
1.Change Order request
2. S.O.W. 
3. Work packages
4. Schedule
5. Blueprints 
Execution: Reports -
Project Status meeting when you get a group together to get reports.  What info would you collect or give out?
Measuring progress.
1. Check schedule

2. Check to criteria
3. What is the degree of accomplishment 
4. Cost to date vs. budget
5. Corrective action effective 
6. Critical ratios-monitor.

Individual Status meeting:   when you meet an individual to ask their progress on assigned tasks.


44. Types of reports-Status
Status reports 
Overall status colours- 
what do they represent? 
Expected completion date.
Estimated budgets vs. actual Estimated schedule vs. actual. On budget /on time 
Owners of the status. 
General project data.
Client contact info. . Look at your handout or the book and know about four items on the report. Note the colour codes re: status. What are the names of people assigned? 


Open task reports:

What is the stage of completion of the task? This is per an individual or team. It's best reported as: not started, 50% done or completed.  What is holding up the tasks being completed? Try and get people to use to identify blocks to progress


Know this

Issues logs:
Where's the beef?
Give issue an ID # and date
Status-is it open or closed? 
Describe and what impact on the project?
Assign person to resolve.
Date of last action Describe action.
Current status. 
Keep records of actions. 
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Execution:controlling change
Scope creep. Very important for a Project Manager. You must know the 6 steps. This may involve a major change management process if severe. Project items getting beyond plan and intention in terms of budget, time and quality – under or over. React by:e Order Requests:

Scope creep control-6 steps 
1 Review the changes occurring from plan. 
2. Translate into time, $ and performance (quality). 
3. Do a cost benefit analysis. 4. Get changes approved. 
5. Communicate to all who need to know.
6.  Monitor the effect of the changes.


Motivate team members

S.O.W. review and reinforce their items with them.  Give more detailed work packages and clearer criteria. Invite to Status meetings. Review relevant project plan details.


Change management if project is behind schedule.
Use communication plan. Used fixed phase estimate Change or reinforce completion criteria. Hold Status meetings.
Key documents: 1. S.O.W. Statement of work.  2. Project plan. 3. Requirements Specifications. 4. Functional specifications. 5. Blueprints

When change details are completed the  written sections are distributed to the appropriate persons 

Change Order Requests:

Changes must be requested, documented and approved. On major projects there would be a Change Board - like a Board of Directors.

Change Boards might include:
Reps. From teams Customers representative
Reps. From related depts. 
Reps. From functional Mgt.
Note: Project Manager would communicate the changes.

Note: When you write to me and ask me to check your Web. CT marks I enter this into a Change log.

I review this log at project Close Out. (audit)

 Return to top of page.
Close out:
Closing out the project:

Involves the deliverables

Involves finances:

Involves people:

Involves records:

Involves the P.M.'s future

Know this

Close out report. 

Be sure to include variances of schedule and budget to planned.
1Audit the finances

2. Ask for stakeholders and teams for feedback. 
3. Review
Open Task Reports, Review Issues Logs. 
4. Successes?Do differents next time?  Learned what?
5. Get client approval
on project completion 
6. Store info. in data base. 
7. Pass on records 
8. Celebrate
9. Stay in touch. Know this

Lesson learned.

Do this with each Stakeholder/ group.

Teams, Customer, Management, and Vendors.

Focus on your Estimates, Risk management, Communication effectiveness and Controls.

Summarize all above in a final (Summary) report.

Next cycle or new project. 

Start the next cycle if necessary.
Bring the right people on board for next cycle. Who would you want on your team for the next project?

Transition steps-use the close out Report.

Know this


Return to top of page.
Final review:

A quick way to learn this subject is to apply it to everyday activities and life events. 

Know these four boxes.


Project cycle-has four phases (hint, hint): 

This is a typical cycle (four phases) that we used:
1. Define 
2. Plan 
3. Execute/control 
4. Close out

Know this

Project Manager functions:

1. Define 
2. Plan
3. Control 

He/she does this throughout the project-at every stage. .

Know this

Project success criteria:

Getting management support

Having and using the plan.

Excellent two way communication

Keeping team members involved and stakeholders. Know this

And #5 is? Go back to start of matrix. 

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Terms: Definitions: Applications
 Term: Definition: Application:
Deliverables. The desired outcomes of the project
Manhattan project  Early huge military project To design the atomic bomb
Polaris project Submarine and missile project 
Project industry Result of complexity of costing, size of the projects and huge #'s of partners involved. Also, the speed of development and #'s of new products coming online re: computers.
Project Life cycle   the four phases of a typical project.  Definition, Planning, Execution, Close out
Operations cycle-production This is when the project is applied. The project is to design the car. Operations are to manufacture it. Getting married is a project. Operations is staying married.
Program.  A group of similar projects oriented to a similar goal. General motors new models for a year-many different cars
Project management  The means, techniques, concepts Art and science combined 
Trade off . Taking less of one outcome for more of another  e.g. more time, for less cost or less time at a greater expense.
Organizational structure influence Authority, Communication, Priority, Focus, Chain of command  Project managers works to minimize negative influences 
Matrix organization Project and functional managers have the same authority Functional managers assign team members control administration related to them
Line or functional managers The ones that manage departments  H.R., marketing, manufacturing
Stakeholders Parties with an interest in project 5 types-see above or Verzuh
Charter  a  document that refers to starting a specific project, who the sponsor and project manager is an end result. Each project must have one.
Risk The chance that outcomes will not turn out as planned

CBS Work Breakdown Structure.

Know this

whole process

Work Breakdown structure, diagram/chart:
Diagram that shows relationships-in a hierachal format. Top down. 
A= high level summary
B, G, D, =summary tasks. These summarize the Tasks.
C, F, E,H, I, J, K, =Tasks. When these are done the Summary task is done. 
Work packages can be $ estimated. Time $cost and resource $cost are generated from the tasks. 
Decomposition Breaking down the W.B.S.  into smaller units 
 Summary task a description of an end result 
Task A subset of the Summary task
Activity Similar to a task. Something that can be accomplished/done
Event  The result of completing one or more activities An end state at a specific time.
Work package A sub element of a task. Can be estimated for time and cost
Schedule A series of interconnected times set for planned events
Network diagram.  A method of showing scheduling for tasks
Start A B. C Finish
Steps to develop diagram: e.g.  What needs to be done =B: what comes  before that= A: what comes after =C:and what can be done at the same time=E & D. Of course, the bigger the project the more tasks we have to schedule, but the formula remains the same even though the letters increase or change in sequence. 
C.P.M. = Critical path method. Calculates time to complete essentials.
Longest path through the network is the critical path for the purpose of definition in this course.
PERT  Performance Evaluation Review Technique Estimates Realistic time using a formula.
R= Optimum+Pessimistic+4x probable
divided by 6
GANTT charts A chart design  by Henry Gantt (1917). Easy to understand. Can show PERT relationship Used to show time allocation for task in a linear, horizontal fashion-planned and completed with important 
references,. e.g. milestones
Milestones Significant events in the life of a project  These are not done, they are indicators.
Benchmarks A measure of quality or standard 
Microsoft Project Software to manage project Most commonly used. Many other programs built to use its foundation.
Contingency plan A chosen alternative plan
Monitor To keep watch in order to take action
Variance  A deviation from plan or expectation e.g. from budget, schedule and quality.
More terms below: Return to top of page.

Which projects should be bid on? 
How should the proposal-preparation process be organized and staffed? 
How much should be spent on preparing proposals for bids? 
How should the bid prices be set? 
What is the bidding strategy?  Is it ethical?
Proposal approach. These are the basics. We will modify as students submit ideas in Oct. 2002. Handout provided in Class . Week 9. 
Cover letter 
Executive summary 
Understanding the clients needs 
Detailed examination behind these needs (cause & effects, symptoms & roots) 
Overview solutions that address these client needs 
Discuss an approach that will get the client this solution (Define, Plan, Implement, Close) 
Plan for Communication, Project Management, Support, Training, Transitioning 
Description of group and their skill sets (including bios) proposing to do the work 
Any relevant past experience that can be applied – Case Studies

Executive Summary guidelines 
Although this document is used to summarize the final Project Report the checklist can be used to develop the ideas for the project at the beginning stages.

Executive summary – what it is.

A document that reduces any long business document down to a page or two of concise and vital information for a person (executive) to become informed enough to make a decision or be fully aware. 

You will be reducing your project proposal down to a one page (max.) document that will enable Fred Pentney to make a decision whether your project is suitable for the Final Group project. . Your summary will also help you define your project and its scope and the roles some your team will be taking responsibility for.

Executive summary: What you need to include:

  • 1. Name of your group or business etc.
  • 2. Name of your project- temporary name is O.K. if using this list to start your project.
  • 3. Reason for your project. 
  • 4. Is it a real project? I.e. Does one of the group members has an non course related interest in it?
  • 5. Specify if it is a profit or nonprofit endeavor.
  • 6. The customer. 
  • 7. The funders.
  • 8. Other key stakeholders.
  • 9. A few of the key deliverables. What will it look like, feel like or do?
  • 10. What will be different in the world after the project is completed or in place?
  • 11. The scope, i.e. party - a quiet intimate affair or a big extravanganza?
  • 12. Rough budget, timeline and level of quality.
  • 13. The Project team roles (broadly defined) – do not have to present authority or responsibility in this document.
  • 14. The project manager’s name if selected.
  • 15. Any other information that helps to differentiate it from other projects of a similar nature.
  • 16. Anything essential to this list.

Earned Value you just need to know the essentials - not all the details. Use this link for a test question.

You should know what SV and CV stand for and the B for Budget. 
At any given time in the project we can assess the earned value e of the project -what is the value of what we have done so far.  How much money have we spent and how much time  have we spent against the budget (heavy line on the graph which represents both time value and $ value -the other two lines on the graph.

Calculates the cost of completed tasks to determine if project with go over $ budget and scheduled time. Know 4 of the acronyms and how calculate % of cost to actual and project final #’s. Use two multiples to force final numbers.  This is a simplified example: 
We have a budget of  $100,000 for the project and it is to be completed in 12 months. At the six month mark we have spent $70,000 
and we have only completed four months of the scheduled work. Earned value calculations determine the final projected costs of the project based on the earned value at our test point. They also indicate the $ cost variance (CV) and the schedule variance (SV) from the budgeted amounts of $ and time at a given point. BCV,  BSV 
So we are 20% over budget $10,000/$50,000 and 33% behind on time, 2 months/6 months. Note: we are only half way through the project so we can expect the same results, but compounded, for the second half if we don't get project in control. 
This is as far as I will take this calculation at this point for the purpose of the review.  The mathematics factor both amounts as a multiple and this project will be over double the original estimate. 


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